Under Center Concepts: I-Formation, Ace Set, Pro-set – Football 101


In this installment on Offensive Formations, we tackle formations where the play starts with the QB under center.  Those branch out into various base formations like the I-Formation, Ace Sets, and Pro Set formations the West Coast Offense (WCO) was built on.

Before we get into each of the three, there are some concepts and benefits that each of the three share.

Unlike a RB/FB being handed the pigskin in a shotgun formation, he’s not getting the ball at a standstill.  He’s already moving when he gets it, which gives him more of a head of steam when he hits the LOS. Harder to stop a moving train.

The quarterback and back move towards each other, and as soon the hand off is complete, each head in separate directions. This way the QB isn’t in the way for the back. In addition, if the QB is scanning the field because he’s pulled the ball down and about to throw a play-action pass, he doesn’t want the back there.

It’s a dance that requires practice to get the timing right and handoffs must look the same as his fake handoffs, each and every time.

In a recent trend, some quarterbacks spend the majority, if not all of their college career in the shotgun/pistol formations, so NFL QB coaches are having to teach, and to an extent, waste time on teaching concepts. Ones that should have been drilled into their head from when he first started playing the game. Therefore, there is an adjustment to taking snaps for some.

Ace/One Back/Single Back/Lone Back:

The Ace/One Back set is discussed in greater detail here, but it is simply a single back set that offers an abundance of options for offensive coordinator Nathaniel Hackett to dial up. He can filter through various groupings (See Chart below) of  3WR/4WR sets and then go back to a 2TE set.

The team’s base set of running plays will be able to be run out of most, if not all of the looks. Personnel can change from 4WR to 2WR/2TE but the same dive play can be run up the gut from any of the looks.
Ace set formations

  1. 11Set 1RB, 1 TE, 3WR with the TE split out.
  2. 12Set 1RB, 2TE, 2WR with the WRs in a Twins Left look.
  3. 12Set 1RB, 2TE 2WR with the LTE split out in a Twins look with the X.
  4. 10Set 1RB, 0TE, 4WR with a Trips Right look.
  5. 10Set 1RB, 0Te, 4WR with a Trips Left look.

2-digit offensive formation chartWhen Blake Borltes is under center this season, variations of the Ace set will likely be the primary concepts that are used.

A huge stable of the quarterback dropping back is the play action pass. Even teams that use an Air Coryell system with the QB is shotgun will use the PAP. Teams think he’s dropping back to hand off for a run, but instead, he keeps it and tosses it deep because the defense sucked up for the run. Or he keeps the ball himself if he’s got wheels. They don’t know what they’re getting because every play starts off looking the same. That’s its greatest asset.

West Coast Offense/WCO: 

For a West Coast Offense, most of the snaps historically came from under center however, the offense has continued to evolve from Bill Walsh’s base concepts. Coaches have added and meshed other concepts and today quite a bit of it is run from the shotgun as well.

A WCO, quickly, is a scheme that capitalizes on short quick passes, as an alternative to an underperforming running game. They dink and dunk down the field with runs and short passes and then hit a go type route when the coverage loosens to stop the short. This eats up clock so the opposing offense has less time. If a team can score in these slow marches down the field, it’s a good scheme. If they can’t, they just ate up a bunch of clock with nothing to show for it.
bill Walsh west coast offense formation

  1. 21Set 2RB 1TE 2WR Pro Set
  2. 21Set 2RB 1TE 2WR Far/Weak (TE/RB Opposite Side)
  3. 21Set 2RB 1TE 2WR Near/Strong (TE/RB Same Side)
  4. 21Set 2RB 1TE 2WR FB in a Wing Left position
  5. 22Set 2RB 2TE 1WR Double Tight

A coach can use boot-action in a spread to employ a FB and keep a defense guessing.

I Formation:
The I formation is a formation that every NFL playbook has a chapter on.  It is a bit more friendly to the pass/run ratio. The I-formation comes with the QB under center and a Fullback and Tailback, sometimes called the I back, behind the QB. It can come in variations that have 3WR, or 3 TE, or 2 of either 1 and one of the other. It’s not exactly as dynamic as the single back set above, but it is still versatile and offers more running options with the pair of backs in the backfield.

  1. 21Set 2RB 1TE 2WR with more of a spread out look.
  2. 23Set 2 RB 3 TE with a Tight/Heavy look.
  3. 21Set 2RB 1TE 2WR  with more of a tight look.
  4. 22Set 2RB 2TE 1 WR with one TE positioned on the wing.
  5. 23Set  2RB 3TE 1 WR with a Heavy unbalanced line to the right and the 3TE in a wing on the left.

It’s a big component of a team’s short yardage and goal line package simply because of the fullback. They are the battering ram that open holes and occupy defenders for half/tail backs to pick up extra yardage. Often, a FB with be in front of a RB to clear a path. It’s a lot easier if the QB isn’t in his path, which is why in the shotgun, the FB lines up differently. He’s useless if the QB is standing in his way.


Social Media Advice to Young Players: read why to avoid it

social media advice

Social media gives us a glimpse into the human condition and the heartbeat of morality. This can be both a useful tool and a frightening one when used to further an agenda. Hopefully, agents constantly offer social media advice.

As America is bombarded with a message of tolerance, social media gives us the reverse. We see how perceptions of people can be shaped through a few sentences. Their character and lives summed up and judged. A life story in 280 characters.

Depending on your world view, players are either a saint or a sinner with little in between. The media often omits many details to further their agenda. Facts ignored. History ignored. Laws and privacy mere fluff in their way.

For some, this gross laziness of not giving America the full story is done with malice. Retribution for any slights. People love to cloak themselves in the illusion of their own self-righteousness while slandering others. Hypocrisy rules. The NFL is the mack daddy of this.

Once the media decides on a narrative, facts be damned, it becomes truth. Journalism dies when laziness and gross bias set in. When media outlets feel a protrayal in line with their thinking, better suits their agenda, they omit a full telling.

In the case of Adrian Peterson, we saw a wild fluxation of where America stood. When news first broke, many were outraged that he even got in trouble. A ‘debate’ about parenting styles became the topic de jour until the photos were leaked.

The story of his house and room and testimony of his other children changed many a mind. Once again, depending on what facts are presented, snap judgements were made. Evil incarnate or a victim of his own raising.

The human eye can discern 256 shades of gray, but the cult of the Twitter mind only sees black or white.

“Reports” or “Sources” or “Could, May” are all words that should circled in red

Rice and Mixon had videos tell their story; however, the circumstances were not the same. Regardless of where one stands on these two players, teams did their due diligence. Rice is gone. Mixon is getting a second chance. Whether a team’s fans buy it, will be up to how well their Public Relations team can spin it.

Right now, in this country, differing opinions aren’t welcome. We’ve become a nation with flashes of the McCarthy years with a splash of Big Brother. Privacy is an illusion. Free Speech is an illusion. Truth is hated unless it backs up ones own thoughts.

It doesn’t matter if you’re some Joe Schmoe from podunk or a famous athlete, everything you say and do is being watched and judged. And almost always condemned. People no longer look for the good, don’t look beyond the why, they rig a noose.

The media is complicit. They decide what’s acceptable and what’s not. These faceless people in boardrooms determine what story to tell. Trust me, it’s a story, not a reporting of facts.

When people are given the same power, to disseminate information with whatever twist, truth no longer matters. Behind every keyboard is an illusion. Trust doesn’t exist and cowardliness reigns.

As I follow Twitter and see one player after another who has big dreams of playing in the NFL being summed up by one report, my faith in humanity slips a tad. When I see young men robbed of their joy of trying to reach their goals of a lifetime, I shed a little tear.

I don’t know their stories because so few in the ‘press’ has bothered to do their job. My message, if I had a platform to every player is this: the world you live in isn’t fair. One person can rob you of your dreams.

Social media and anyone you meet on it, isn’t your friend. Treat every encounter as if you’re on film. Even if you treat everyone with respect and kindness, there’s always the black souls who believe you don’t deserve it. Who will make it their mission to knock your wings off.

Be prepared. Hire a manger to combat any rumors. Surround yourself, in person, with people who have your best interest at heart, who want nothing from you and want to reach for the stars, not wallow in the mud.

Have faith in yourself that even if the narrative about you is false, there will be someone out there wanting to see beyond the veil. While the media in all its forms paints a bleak picture, trust that it’s a challenge to make you stronger. Use it as fuel.

For anyone reading this, who may be nodding their head, let’s join together and push for more. More honesty. Less judgements. A greater capacity for seeing beyond the words on a screen. When we do this, we can put a little bit more sunshine in a bleak world.

Stress Fractures, how they occur, the types and the treatment.

Dr Sullivan explains sports injuries

Player X has a stress fracture or Player Y is out of practice because of persistent pain.  This type of thing is heard frequently throughout training camp, preseason and the regular season.  I thought I would explain the concept of a stress fracture before we talked about specific types of stress fractures that occur.

A stress fracture is an overuse injury. It occurs when muscles become fatigued and are unable to absorb added shock that occurs from the repetitive activity of practice and game. Eventually, the fatigued muscle transfers the overload of stress to the bone causing a tiny crack called a stress fracture. Generally stress fractures occur at sites where the muscle has been pulled away from the bone to which it is attached.

When I explain this to patients, I use the example of gluing something and inadvertently gluing your fingers together.  When you pull your fingers apart breaking the bond of the glue, you create the same type of stressors that a stress fracture does when the muscle is ripped away from the bone.  While the glue example only hurts for a second or two, a stress fracture can result in pain for 6-8 weeks while the muscle heals itself and reattaches the damaged fibers to the bone.

The simple tearing away of the muscle is a class 1 stress fracture.  With proper treatment, which is basically rest and limited stress to the area, the severity of the injury does not progress.  However, continuing to play through the pain can result in an actual microfracture of the bone itself.  Needless to say, this is a more bothersome injury.
Most stress fractures occur in the weight bearing bones of the lower leg and the foot. However, location is more associated with type of activity and certain injuries are more often associated with specific activities.

Particular locations of stress fractures are commonly associated with particular activities.  Metatarsal, Navicular, Pars Articularis, Fibular and Tibial fractures are commonly seen in football players.  Baseball players who experience Ulnar Collateral ligament injury (Tommy John) often also experience Olecranon stress fractures.  A grade 1 Lisfranc injury in the foot is associated with a stress fracture of the 1st and or 2nd metatarsal.

Pars Articularis is a stress fracture in the articulation area between the vertebrae in the spine. This could be what Derek Wolfe was suffering from, or in addition to another condition/injury.

Stress fractures are the one time a woman doesn’t want to be superior to a man.  Stress fractures in female athletes are 3 times more common in females than in males.  There are a number of theories why this is true, but the most common thought is that a lack of adequate calcium in diet can lead to an increased incidence of stress fractures. The female athlete triad: eating disorders (bulimia or anorexia), amenorrhea (infrequent menstrual cycle), and osteoporosis is a condition that has been associated with the increased rate of stress fractures in female athletes.

The most common symptom associated with stress fractures is pain exacerbated by activity and relieved with rest.  Stress fractures are difficult to diagnose because plain film x-rays are usually negative when pain first occurs.  Often times adequate treatment is delayed because appropriate diagnosis is delayed days, even weeks because the only symptom is persistent pain and sometimes mild to moderate swelling at the pain site.

Persistent pain should lead to repeat x-rays which may or may not show bone remodeling (healing), if persistent pain does not diagnose problem. MRI or nuclear bone scans maybe used to show specific localized areas of injury that may not appear on typical x-rays.

Once the diagnosis of a stress fracture is made, then comes treatment.  The most important treatment is rest. Individuals need to rest from the activity that caused the stress fracture, and engage in a pain-free activity during the six to eight weeks it takes most stress fractures to heal.  If the activity that caused the stress fracture is resumed too quickly,  harder-to-heal stress fractures can develop. Re-injury also could lead to chronic problems where the stress fracture might never heal properly, this is called persistent nonunion.

How are stress fractures prevented? Common sense is #1 – If it hurts don’t do that thing that makes it hurt.  Fans often get upset when an athlete on their favorite team is held out of a game or practice because of pain.  They think the athlete is being a wuss or is “soft” and out of condition.  This is not true.  Pain is the body’s way of telling you something is wrong.  Ignoring pain is just asking for a worse injury to occur.
Here are some tips developed by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons to help prevent stress fractures:

  • When participating in any new sports activity, set incremental goals. For example, do not immediately set out to run five miles a day; instead, gradually build up your mileage on a weekly basis.  In football players this goal is met thru the gradual build up of activity during OTA’s.  It helps explain why athletes start out with strength and conditioning before getting to on the field activities.
  • Cross-training — alternating activities that accomplish the same fitness goals — can help to prevent injuries like stress fractures. Instead of running every day to meet cardiovascular goals, run on even days and bike on odd days. Add some strength training and flexibility exercises to the mix for the most benefit.
  • Maintain a healthy diet. Make sure you incorporate calcium and Vitamin D-rich foods in your meals. Most people assume this means drinking more milk, but calcium is found in several foods you may not be ware of these include Kale, broccoli, figs, sardines, salmon,and black beans
  • Use the proper equipment.
  • Do not wear old or worn running shoes.
  • If pain or swelling occurs, immediately stop the activity and rest for a few days. If continued pain persists, seek medical evaluation.
  • It is important to remember that if you recognize the symptoms early and treat them appropriately, you can return to sports at your normal playing level.

By now everyone who reads these articles know how much I like car analogies.   A simple example of a stress fracture in a car is driving with a broken shock.  While usually the car will still roll and get you from point A to point B, it may not be the smoothest of rides.  Ignoring the busted shock long term can lead to premature tire wear, brake wear and tear and other more serious damage to the cars suspension.  The same is true in athletes.

Ignoring persistent pain can result in longer periods of nonparticipation and in some cases has resulted in premature ends to athletes competitive careers.

Scouting Quarterbacks: read what the NFL is looking at

In this NFL Scouting series, we will cover each position group. The first will be scouting quarterbacks. In the real report I used, there was pictures of the quarterback in various movements, with comments about each. In order to keep anonymity for the Scout, I’m only using the words, no photos of the QB the below, or the handwritten notes used.

What’s fascinating about about the two page report is how detailed it is. When scouting quarterbacks, not only do they put together these analysts, but visit games, watch film, analyze them at the combine, any bowls and often host them at their facilities.

They break down film, have them do whiteboard work, talk to coaches, etc. Choosing a quarterback isn’t usually some whim, it’s a long process based on reports like below. The actual one below is based on, had photos showing:

  • stride
  • hit & throw
  • weight transfer
  • low take-away
  • ball sails position
  • level throw
  • throwing plane
  • ball carry during drop & pocket movement (*compact/2 hands on ball)
  • frame throws: shoulders, hips, lead leg aligned w target
  • slightly flexed front leg
  • high extended over the top release
  • daylight in the grip+adequate hand size
  • compact lead arm
  • hip torque
  • accuracy on the move

There were lines often on the photos showing the above notations.

After the snap how was his:

  • pocket awareness
  • vision
  • locate 2nd WR
  • force into coverage, release quickness
  • arm strength
  • quick/compact vs elongated
  • smooth fluid vs jerky
  • anticipation
  • short stroke
  • change release point
  • technician in mechanics
  • accuracy, short & long
  • touch
  • grip
  • resets quickly
  • balance
  • throws on the run
  • pocket mobility
  • lateral pocket movement
  • weight transfer
  • stride (short =2″-6″)

There’s more that they look at pre-snap.

  • leadership
  • poise
  • judgement
  • defense recognition
  • pre-snap reads
  • primary/secondary WRs
  • blitz recognition
  • audibles
  • who call pro?
  • redirect protections
  • respect for the football

In the pocket:

  • feel for rush
  • pocket use
  • slide/step up
  • strength in pocket
  • make 1st rusher miss
  • temperament
  • squirrelly in the pocket

We’re not done yet on scouting quarterbacks. More items they look for:

  • catchable ball
  • make WR adjust
  • throw away from coverage
  • drive ball into tight coverage
  • hit WR in stride
  • trajectory
  • TOUCH: throwing angles
  • velocity
  • improvisation
  • finds passing lanes
  • trusts his arm
  • leadership-ability to command
  • voice inflection
  • knowledge of the game
  • game manager
  • clock management

Grades on these types of throws:

  • go
  • seam
  • shallow cross
  • dig
  • out
  • deep out
  • comeback
  • quick slant
  • bubble screen
  • check down

Here are the types of notes that can be made when scouting quarterback:

  • Touch, but power on his 8 cut through traffic. Elusive, quick, nice touch on the run. Eyes downfield on scramble. Power runner, looks for contact. Tough kid that’s quick. Very accurate on the run. Don’t know about pocket awareness. Gets to 2nd level well. Tough player. Needs to get stronger. Eyes downfield on scramble.
  • Steps up nicely in the pocket. Elusive. Big arm. Puts ball where only his guys can catch it. Gets away with some high school dare balls.
  • Bullet for arm. A little too reliant on arm strength. Throws off back foot sometimes. Confident. His highlights are based most off of 4 vert concepts. Quick feet. Can buy time on the move. Ball comes out high. Nice 3 ball. Stands tall and delivers strikes. Uses frame well. Drops ball well into coverage.
  • Long motion. Electric. Nice job looking off safeties. Would like to see more reads/routes, but system doesn’t seem to allow for it. Further evaluation needed. Athletic enough to play in both a pro and spread offense.

There you have it, what scouts look at, the type of items they look for and some notes they’ll make. Obviously, the bulleted items above will have numbers or notes and on their QB eval sheet will have many hand scribbled notes.

LisFranc Injuries – No it is not my French Cousin. Dr Sullivan Explains

Dr Sullivan explains sports injuries

LisFranc injuries are talked about in all sports as a season progresses, but what exactly is a LisFranc injury? The LisFranc joint complex are the bones and ligaments that form the arch in the human foot.

It is a series of bones, joints, ligaments and tendons that provide stability to the arch of the foot and bridge the region between the ankle/heel and the toes.  It is important in providing stability to to structure of the foot and stabilizing the foot during the strenuous activity of walking, running and jumping.

The LisFranc region and therefore the injuries associated with this region are named after Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin – a surgeon in the Napoleonic army in the 1800’s who first described this particular injury.

Most people assume this injury is related to a fracture; however, it is a complex continuum of damage that is rated by the severity of the injury.  Simple strain of the ligaments to full displaced fracture of the 1st and or 2nd metatarsals.  The interesting thing about this injury is not the injury itself, but the damage that occurs to the cartilage at the ends of the midfoot bones.

This damage results in restrictions in movement of the joint and persistent pain. Cartilage is the smooth surface in each joint which allows for ease of movement of the joint region.  When this region gets injured, the joint is like a ball bearing with a nick in it.  The bearing doesn’t move smoothly and this results in binding and restrictions in the normal smooth movement.

If the injury goes untreated, or inadequately treated, the entire joint can fail which results in both collapse of the arch but early onset arthritis in the midfoot which is both painful and persistent even in the world class athlete.

How do lisFranc injuries occur?

They can occur from both non contact and direct contact stressors.  Simple twist and fall non contact injuries are common in football and soccer where a player “steps wrong” or the foot gets twisted in the turf or with other players’ legs and feet.  It commonly occurs when one player “trips” over another player’s extended foot. More severe injuries occur when a player “lands wrong” after jumping to catch a ball resulting in the full weight of the body being absorbed by the tiny region in the foot.

Direct trauma generally results in fracture of the 1st and or 2nd metatarsal and partial or full dislocation of the resulting bone fragments.  This type of injury can occur in any sport where a player is asked to jump and then land on a hard surface including football, baseball, basketball and track & field.  Without proper stabilization and treatment of this injury, excessive scar tissue as well as early arthritis can occur in the injury site resulting in persistent pain and swelling when stress is placed on this region of the foot.

The most common symptoms of Lisfranc injury include:

  • The top of foot may be swollen and painful resulting in difficulty bearing ny weight on the affected foot.
  • There may be bruising on both the top and bottom of the foot. Bruising on the bottom of the foot is highly suggestive of a Lisfranc injury.  This bruising occurs right behind the great toe and severe pain is experienced when a shoe with a high or firm arch is attempted to be worn.
  • Pain that worsens with standing, walking or attempting to push off on the affected foot. The pain can be so severe that crutches may be required to prevent further injury.

Regardless of the mechanism of injury, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is imperative to maximize recovery from this type of injury.  The greater the amount of displacement that occurs in the joint as a result of injury, the greater the need for more aggressive  treatment including surgery to stabilize the joint.

These types of injuries are difficult to identify on regular x-rays and treatment maybe delayed as a result.  Simple strains (no fractures) are treated with none to minimal toe weight bearing for 6-12 weeks and then a gradual return to full weight bearing in a custom shoe which is molded to the persons foot to maximize stability of the affected area of the foot.

If surgery is needed to stabilize the LisFranc joint, it is commonly done 7-10  days post injury to allow time for swelling to go down.  The surgery is usually done to insert screws and or wires to hold the bones in place, to remove any bone fragments occuring when the ligament is torn off the bone and hold the bones and ligaments in place to give the body time to heal the area.

Generally 4-6 months or more after the initial surgery a minimal procedure is done to remove the screws and or wires. This is done for 2 reasons: pain, and to prevent breakage of the screws from the forces applied when the athlete returns to the practice and playing field.

Recovery from this injury can be difficult to predict.

Simple injuries that do not require surgery may have the athlete out of commision for 2-3 months minimum to allow time for adequate healing.  They will miss a significant time, but if all goes well they may be able to return during the same season in which the injury occured.  If surgery is required, generally the athlete is placed on injured reserve for the remainder of the season.  If all goes according to plan without setbacks, they should be able to  return to the playing field 6-12 months after the injury.

Trying to rush the athlete back too soon can often result in irreparable damage to the athletes performance and their career.  LisFranc injuries are not something to play around with.  The athlete needs to follow the instructions regarding immobilization and weight bearing to the letter and stop immediately if they experience any pain or swelling in the repaired foot.  Many athletes return from these injuries without detriment, but there are also many who never returned to their pre injury form.

Scouting Halfbacks and Fullbacks: read what the NFL is looking for

In this NFL Scouting series, we will cover each position group. The first was quarterbacks. In the real report I used, there are pictures of the backs in various movements, with comments about each. In order to keep anonymity for the Scout, I’m only using the words, no photos, or the handwritten notes used.

Scouting halfbacks and fullbacks gives you a glimpse into what happens in their world.

Unlike the QB report, this is one page, but there’s less to analyze with this position group than the guys under center. Even so, when scouting backs, not only do they put together these analyses, but visit games, watch film, analyze them at the combine, any bowls and often host them at their facilities.

While there was less to cover, they still went in-depth and beyond what the average fan would consider. Scouting Halfbacks and Fullbacks gives the reader a chance to see inside the minds of what NFL general managers are looking for.

Hopefully, this will help you watch the game with more detail and talk with knowledge. They break down film, have them do whiteboard work, talk to coaches, etc. The actual one below is based on, had photos showing:


  • one cut
  • slasher
  • compact
  • upright/erect
  • pick & slide
  • screen type
  • slippery

Overall Size

  • bruiser
  • diminutive
  • lengthy
  • high cut

Inside run

  • acceleration in hole
  • strength
  • balance
  • effort
  • burst

Outside run

  • stride
  • speed to corner
  • cutting ability
  • elude

Elusive run

  • make defender miss
  • vision
  • darter vs weaver
  • iline & open field


  • precise cuts vs round off
  • gather body
  • separation quickness
  • body stiffness to adjust on move
  • flexibility to adjust

Run after catch

  • acceleration
  • elude
  • toughness

Fumbler? Reason

  • carriage
  • carelessness
  • extra effort
  • physical make-up

Pass Pro

  • willing? effective?
  • adjust
  • vision/blitz recognition
  • inside power
  • outside lateral adjust
  • chip
  • cut block

This is an important list scouting halfbacks and fullbacks

  • instincts
  • vision (cutback), hole/block read
  • pad level
  • durability
  • stamina
  • workload limitations
  • center of gravity
  • ball security
  • suddenness
  • best in open space
  • hands? extends to pluck vs gather
  • balance after contact
  • elude (in open field)
  • balance
  • make defender miss
  • bender?
  • explosive speed
  • burst through hole
  • initial quickness
  • lateral bounce
  • leg/fee management on contact
  • short strider

All the lists above will have remarks, numbers, grades. In addition, after watching games and film, the scout could make notes like these, which were after a game. Each paragraph is a different player.

  • Squirter. Elusive, low to ground runner. Does not take a hit square. Good vision that belongs between tackles. Strong legs, keeps them driving. Runs through, not around you. Power game runner, question his vision. 1 cut and go. Not a HR hitter.
  • Keeps legs pumping. Tough, quick burst back. elusive, but one cut guy. Low center of gravity. Doesn’t get squared up to get t tackled. Little target. Can break away.
  • Nice hands, smooth mover. Breakaway speed, hides behind and sets up blockers well in screen game. Low center of gravity. Hard to hit. N/S runner. Great vision and elusive player. Doesn’t stop legs.
  • Shifty, breakaway speed. electric. Open field=gone. Runs through arm tackles. Low center of gravity. Good hands. Good patience and vision. Really pops off the screen.
  • Like him, more of an outside the tackles RB. does well squaring up his shoulders. Lines up in the slot at times, ran a fairly sloppy 5 cut, but cuts looked fine. Has ability, but for being a speedster, I question his breakaway.
  • Breakaway speed. elusive, but not a dancer. Downhill runner. Big body. Tall, but runs low. does not give a big tackling target. Long legged strider. Tough runner. does not turn down a tackler. Like this kid as both a spread and dot back.

There you have it, what scouting halfbacks and fullbacks look like, the type of items they look for and some notes they’ll make. Obviously, the bulleted items above will have numbers or notes and on their RB/FB eval sheet will have many hand scribbled notes.

Hope this was helpful, you can comment at the bottom of the page or send a direct message to @the_teal_zone on twitter.

NFL Scouts: read what they look for in Offensive Linemen

Nfl scouting offensive linemen

In this NFL Scouting series, we will cover each position group, giving you a glimpse into what NFL franchises look for. In the real report I used, there are pictures of the player(s) in various movements, with comments about each. In order to keep anonymity for the Scout, I’m only using the words, no photos, or the handwritten notes used. Scouting offensive linemen gives you a glimpse into what happens in their world.

Unlike the QB report, this is one page, but there’s less to analyze with this position group than the guys under center. Even so, when scouting offensive linemen, not only do they put together these analyses, but visit games, watch film, analyze them at the combine, any bowls and often host them at their facilities.

While there was less to cover, they still went in-depth and beyond what the average fan would consider. Scouting offensive linemen gives the reader a chance to see inside the minds of what NFL general managers are looking for. Hopefully, this will help you watch the game with more detail and talk with knowledge.
They break down film, have them do whiteboard work, talk to coaches, etc. The actual report below is based on a player, had photos showing:

  • punch & let feet work vs grab & let feet recover
  • create/generate movement of LOS
  • uses good angles
  • contact balance/sustainability 
  • technically sound
  • on the ground?
  • can he drop hips/weight & anchor
  • positional leverage
  • sink weight (vs bull)

The report also had notes on all of the following:


  1. set
  2. punch
  3. mirror
  4. recover


  • 2nd level adjust
  • 2nd level engage/sustain
  • pull on a track (and adjust)
  • pull & trap
  • pull & lead around corner
  • pull & flip hips to seal short
  • lateral slide
  • response to counter move
  • cut blocker in space
  • linear footspeed
  • initial quickness to get position
  • best in 1st steps?
  • inside redirect
  • adjust when coming off doubles
  • slide adjust
  • short area quickness


  • mauler
  • road grader
  • quick boxer
  • swing player (multiple positions)
  • short area (limited ability in space)
  • wide grabber/clamper
  • positional blocker
  • space athlete
  • drive blocker

How does he handle upfield speed? Can he sink & stop the Bull?
6’7″ or able = shows up in throwing lanes for QB
Get pulled on the edge, short arms?
This list was on a player (yes, in the NFL). There’s a lot of good, but some bad.

  • awareness (stunt/blitz)
  • ducks head
  • pad level good
  • gets overextended
  • top heavy
  • late to extend arms
  • explosion
  • sustain (on 1st contact)
  • short jab/arm extensions in pass pro
  • arms to leverage
  • pump arms in pass pro? (compressing for feet)
  • Hip sink/hip explosion
  • rolls hips on contact
  • hands (discipline)
  • placement/patience/timing/reset
  • works to re-position
  • heavy hands
  • active hands
  • punch
  • wide base/narrow base
  • lower body tightness
  • light in ass
  • knee bender vs waist bender
  • base strength/leverage
  • initial quickness
  • movement off ball
  • ankle bend
  • overset
  • heavy feet
  • linear foot speed

Scouting offensive linemen notes on several players:

OT-Like his punch. Very athletic. Gets to 2nd and 3rd level with ease. Almost too anxious in screen game. Nasty in drive blocks. Stays on his feet decently. Questionable leg strength. He’s beating inferior players.
G-Explosive and gets to 2nd level well. On the ground a lot. Not overly athletic. Stands tall in his pass block and doesn’t use his hands very well.
T-Athletic big man. Gets to second level well. For a big guy, has low center of gravity. Finishes blocks. Needs to work pass pro hand usage. Has some issues blocking in space. Wide body. Question leg strength. Not a road grinder.
G-Punisher on run blocks. Athletic enough on pass sets. Gets to 2nd level pretty well. Needs to lower set. Kinds gives a runway to mediocre pass rushers. Tips the play off with his stance.
What we have in all this is notes from several players, a kind of cheat sheet of what they look for and in the top section, an actual player. Hope this gives you more knowledge in watching training camps so you can see why some guys don’t make your team.

Any questions your can comment way down below. Or send a DM to @the_teal_zone. Thanks for reading.

Run-Pass Option-Learn about RPOs: Football 101

I was asked about the emergence of the Run-Pass Option (RPO) with 21st century QB’s. Until very recently, we rarely heard about the RPO in the pros except for when Aaron Rodgers would do it in Green Bay or Ben Roethlisberger in Pittsburgh.

I’d say the #1 reason we haven’t seen them much until recently has a lot to do with coaches. Run-Pass OPTION gives the QB a lot of power because he’s deciding where the ball will go, not always the coach. In read-options the QB hands the ball off or keeps it, either way, it’s a run. In play action, the QB fakes a hand-off for a run, but throws because it’s a pass play. Neither has the choice to run or pass.

Typically, in RPO there will be three options: the QB gives the ball to the RB, or he keeps it himself, or he picks one of two throws to make. This means the coach has no clue what’s going to happen until he sees the play unfold. Same for the team. Power given up.

RPO’s are practiced, they’re not like a QB sneak or he runs because it’s a busted play and he’s running for his life. RPO’s are in a team’s playbook, part of their offense. Which is why when teams use them, it’s not a one time occasion.

To make this simple, they work when a defender has both run and pass responsibilities (usually a MLB or safety). The quarterback reads what that guy decides to do; cover the pass or run, and then the QB does the opposite. This is a cat and mouse: see zone, pass, see man, run.

It’s vital the QB and RB give the same look no matter what. No tells. That’s also crucial. If either give a sign before the snap or right after they’re going to run or pass, then that LB/S cuts off the play. This works best when the receivers are spread out three wide, etc. The QB receives the ball, he sees that defender’s movement and makes a split decision. Until he does, that RB has to act like he’s getting the ball.

Can’t say this enough: While you need a good offense to pull run-pass options off, this is about the defense being fooled.

For a while, GB was really the only team that had a modern twist on the WCO because they had Eddie Lacy and Jordie Nelson. One-two punch. Suck up for the run, Rodgers throws a 40 yard bomb. Stay back because you think he’s going to pass and he runs. They were built for the RPO. Able to play WCO and a spread, plus a QB who could do it all with weapons teams feared.

When Rodgers was first doing these, he often kept the ball himself because that is an option in this. However, as time went on, coaches saw that the same principle that allowed a QB to keep the ball worked for his back, too. So, why sacrifice your QB four, five times a game when you can let your back do it?

If he runs, the QB is going up the gooch. The OL blocks for a run no matter what the QB does. That’s crucial. That helps the QB if he throws because the defense is caught off guard thinking it’s a run play. However, this is the NFL, their off-guard lasts a second, so no matter what, the QB needs to dump the ball quickly.

Why are we seeing more of these? I’m no expert, but it’s young guys coming from college systems where they often ran these. They’re used to doing them and…going to say young, again because what happens after you run the ball? In college, the QB often is the one who runs after reading the defense.

Some coaches are smart and use college plays/schemes to help their new signal callers to make the jump. The thing is, often these plays work. If you’re a QB who came from a spread system where you threw a lot and do the same in the NFL, the defense is going to back up. Run-pass options are based on getting defenses to keep an even number on the line, so you can run the ball. If they don’t believe you will or can throw deep, then it makes it a lot tougher to use RPO’s.

Will we see Bortles do them this season? Yes, he did them this pre-season. Teams have to fear the run (and should fear the QB could run, too), plus that RB needs to get out the way the instant he realizes he’s not getting the ball, sounds simple but it requires him to know where he’s out of the way.

As far as the coaching side, Nate Hackett is a fairly open guy, he seems like he’d have no problem allowing Bortles to do this.

Remember, the run-pass option is about the QB deciding where the ball will go and defenses being tricked into thinking it’s one thing and he does another. If the defense doesn’t think they have to worry about your run game or passing game, RPO’s become useless because the defense will force you into your weakness.

Front 7 Techniques, learn about them here – Football 201

Most fans think, Nose Guard, Defensive Tackle, Defensive End and Linebacker when Front 7 is mentioned. However, Front 7 techniques are what determines who plays where and how. 4-3 and 3-4 defenses have different philosophies when deciding who to man their teams with.

Since a 3-4 uses three defensive linemen, they’ll use two linebackers or dual positional guy to play on the outsides of the DL to create more of an even match-up. Therefore, what they look for in their “front 7” will be different than in a 4-3.

A 4-3 uses four DL, and typically only one LB because they only use three, not 4 like in a 3-4. If a team uses a 12 personnel (1 RB, 2TE), they need to be blocked, hence seven players, nine spots.

defensive line techniques

Teams don’t use a 12 man front often, and certainly not part of their standard offense, so defenses won’t want to waste a roster spot on a guy who may only play a few snaps a game. Therefore, franchises want guys who can play two different techniques when the needs arises. When bringing in new players, they also decide who best fits what they have already. Chicken or the egg.

Front 7 guys can line up head up, off or inside a shoulder of a C/G/T. When they are off to either side, that’s the odd numbers, except when playing across from the TE, that’s 7 technique. To add more confusion, a player can be in an even position and be an I, like in the diagram below.

Here’s the explanation of the types of defensive linemen, where they play and body type. Remember, 3-4 and 4-3 look to different types, but both change players based on the play.

Front 7 Techniques

0 Technique-

A true NG in a 34 defense. Needs to be country boy strong (or Poly Power guy) and eat up 2 blockers and not get moved.  Athleticism is overrated at this position. The job isn’t to make tackles, it’s to allow the LB’s free to roam and stop the run. Squatty body, big ass, thick legs.

1 Technique-

Similar to the 0 Technique. He is lined up on the inside shoulder of the guard.  He needs to be able to eat up both the center and guard on run plays.  If he can split the double team and take the tackle in the backfield, great. If not, he shouldn’t be moved off the ball and eat up blockers. Also needs to have the ability to slant across the guard’s face and get into the B Gap.  This requires a little more athleticism than the 0 Technique. This is something that happens during both blitzes and line games. Squatty body, big ass, thick legs, more athletic than the 0, but better be able to eat up blockers.

3 Technique-

This guy is not only strong (Not as strong as the 1T), but athletic. Lines up on the outside shoulder of the Guard. Must be able to beat double teams by using a variety of techniques. Need both quick feet and quick hands. This is a rush the passer guy, but needs to stay gap sound and make sure to stuff the run. Must be violent with his grip and able to disengage from the G/T, also able to cross the face of both the Guard and Tackle. He is the most violent player on the field. Needs to be a quick twitch player.
Screen Shot 2018-08-20 at 11.07.05 PM

5 Technique-

Pound for pound, this is probably the best athlete on the field.  This is guy rushes the passer, sets the edge, and disengages while having a variety of pass rush moves. Must be able to convert speed to power, power to speed on his rushes. If 5 Techs are only a speed rusher, after about 3 games of film, he will be stoned by Tackles. They will set deeper and then get their hands on you and you’re finished.

If he is only a power rusher, he can be taken out with the help of a TE because there’s no threat of him going around the tackle. If he can do both, he’s getting a big pay check. He must be the guy who gets home to the quarterback and finishes first, not the guy who gets there late and is finishing off the tackle.

Not only can he rush the passer and make sacks, he also must set the edge for the run game. That is all about funneling everything inside where more player are there to to take him down, keep the back away from an open field. He should line up on the outside shoulder of the T.

7 Technique-

This is the DE who lines up either heads up or on the inside shoulder of the TE. Needs to be quick, twitchy, and able to get his hands on the TE to re-route/disrupt his get-off in the pass game. This guy lines up opposite the 5T.  Also needs to be strong enough to defeat double teams of the Tackle/TE while setting the edge. Not a glamour position.  Still need that edge set.

9 Technique-

These are the fastest of all the DL.  They are also the best twitch players on your team. They have one goal in mind…get to the QB. They can also stop the run on the way to the quarterback. He guy may be smaller, but needs a host of moves (similar to the 5T) because he can’t only rely on speed to get to the QB on the edge. He needs to use a spin/rip/swim move to get home. He is your “specialized pass rusher” who plays a lot on 3rd Down. Very little concern for the run game.

Hope this helps build your football knowledge. As always, you can comment below if you want more help, or send a DM to @the_teal_zone Thanks for reading!

Rugby tackling techniques could help NFL players adjust to new helmet rules

rugby style tackling for the nfl

As most know, the NFL changed the rules on how players may tackle each other – a player can’t lower his head to initiate and make contact with his helmet against an opponent. rugby tackling techniques help NFL players adjust to new helmet rules
Not sure about y’all, but I’m wondering how it will affect the players and the game from beyond the LOS. We know the linemen will have issues, but what’s the ripple out affect? From reffing to the play level. I asked a coach (who wants to remain anonymous, like the scout) what he thought about the change.

“I think everybody who has listened to football and interested in football needs to understand that things are changing right now,” Carroll

Jules: Could how the linemen play increase, rather than decease, injuries because they’ll now be playing differently. Could see them standing more up and less squatting.
Coach:  don’t know how this will effect injuries. I couldn’t even speculate about head injuries. What I can say is that I’m concerned about making players think, especially defensively.

The league and this stupid competition committee that is run like a political party with the stark difference being that there’s never any changes as to who’s on the committee have made playing both offensively and defensively very difficult. The head rules are going to make guys think. And if they’re thinking about it, they’re gonna get hurt.

They’ve now changed the kickoff rules to where you have to have 8 guys up front on KOR. All this will do will increase returns because most teams are going to kick it to the 5 yard line and bet that with not enough blockers in the back end of the return, they’ll be tackled inside the 25.

The change to the catch rule leaves some pretty large loops. There are going to be an increase in fumbles that were immediately ruled last season as incomplete passes. Defensive coaches are now more than ever telling their guys ‘dive on the ball if it’s even close’. What does diving include? It includes your head! The exact thing that they’re trying to protect, they’re now exposing!

Jules: With the O-line spending more time thinking, could sacks increase? That split second making the difference?

Coach: I don’t know that this will allow more sacks, because the defense is also put at such a disadvantage as well. From a competition standpoint, it pretty much evens out, especially on the line of scrimmage. If they’re going to call it the way they’ve talked about.

I think that the passing game has become so much geared towards the offense regarding rules (and there will be a re-emphasis on calling pass interference this season) that it’s pretty difficult to play in the back end of the defense. Yes, as football players, the first thing you’re taught is to keep your head up.

A form tackle is made with the core and middle of your body, not your head. But players are so good now and so elusive that it’s almost impossible to bring down a skill player using a ‘form tackle’. That’s where the head becomes involved. This is where the league has totally contradicted itself and is going to turn the helmet rule into another edition of the catch rule.

The helmet rule could affect every single position on the field. It will absolutely affect how a tackle sets, it will put a premium on more athletic lineman, which isn’t exactly a bad thing, but it really makes being a 6’2’’ Left Guard a pretty hard position because if shorter than either the 3 or 1 techniques, his head will be highlighted in the block whether he wants it to be or not.

Jules: Or like a Barry Church vs a Rob Gronkowski, it’s often tough for a “fair” match-up and flags can go both ways.

Coach. Exactly, there’s a 1,000 examples. These aren’t robots. They’re human bodies with brains. Something the competition committee still can’t grasp.

I think offenses will have some adjustments for the quick passing game that will help the OL out. I would be more concerned about the run game, especially the old G scheme runs if I was an OC.

Which could mean you’re going to see more zone type run actions (which is already happening anyway) because that’s what college players are more used to as it is. But I certainly think that your short yardage/GL game plan is absolutely in a different place this year than it was last year.

Jules: what happens if a team’s run game gets stifled, will that change a team like Denver’s run-first scheme in a bad way? Put more on the shoulders of the QB to carry the offense? If so, would that help a type who relies on the quick release?

Coach: You’ll see more zone scheme stuff, which plays to more to that kind of QB’s ability. Teams won’t abandon the run game, it will be a slow shift towards getting the ball in your best athletes’ hands as fast as you can. I also think the NFL is entering the age where teams are absolutely going to have to cross train their RB’s to also be able to line up in the slot and play at the very least as an inside receiver, and be a threat.

I’m not saying LF is going there, but I do believe that the Patriots are on to something with that, have been on to it for a while now, and I think the league is now trending that way.

For years and years we’ve cross trained all OL so a lot of them have position versatility. We’ve done it with TE’s lining up as WR’s. The defense answered that by playing big Nickel. Now the offense is throwing the versatile backs out there, and it causes the defense to hesitate as to what personnel to line up in.

Jules: Some coaches have said they’re not going to worry about the helmet rules until they see how they’re called. While Carroll says it’s a very big deal.

Coach: With limited practice time in pads actually hitting each other, it’s not helping young players with some of their bad habits, especially tackling habits. If teams can’t get pads on guys to block and hit, it’s really hard to change much at all.

Dan Quinn and Pete Carroll are visionary because they have talked about getting all the defensive coaches in the league together to make a teach tape on how to use the rugby style tackles. I don’t know that it will happen, but I think it would be beneficial for everyone involved on the defensive side of the ball.

Jules: Pete had a rugby coach come in years ago to help the Seahawks, could we see more of that? The Jaguars’ defense was built by a Carroll disciple in Gus Bradley and now he’s in LA with the Chargers. I don’t recall either D-Lines taking big injury hits last season.

Coach: Other teams have introduced it. They just don’t broadcasted it. I know it’s something they do without pads on during OTA’s, which inherently means it’s a less violent type of hit. So yeah, I guess that is a possible answer to the helmet rules, but like Vance said, we don’t know yet.



rugby tackling techniques help NFL players adjust to new helmet rules

rugby tackling techniques help NFL players adjust to new helmet rules
rugby tackling techniques help NFL players adjust to new helmet rules
rugby tackling techniques help NFL players adjust to new helmet rules

Identifying Mike: Football 101

We’ve all seen quarterbacks gesturing wildly at the line of scrimmage, or directing guys to move around. Many fans believe the quarterback is changing the play; however, more times than not, he’s identifying MIKE. He wants a defense to tip their hand based on what he and his offense does.

What is the Mike?

He’s often an inside linebacker, but also the indicator of the scheme the offensive line should use to block. There are two types of inside (middle) linebackers (ILB). Will (weak side) and Mike (middle). It’s confusing, but it’s about the role one fills during a play. There’s also a Sam (strong side LB) who is typically an outside LB, but can line up anywhere. In a 3-4, there’s also a 4th linebacker, the Edge Rusher.

What’s to remember is just because a LB is labeled W, M, S or ER, doesn’t mean that’s where or how he always plays.

There is a double reason in identifying Mike. First, the QB wants the OL to have an even match-up. Offenses don’t want the defense sending four guys to the right of center and they only have two men to block them. If he sees this, he will call out the LB’s number further to his right. That’s who the center and line should change their gap assignments for, or at least keep their eyes on.

Identifying Mike changes the gap assignments and the protection.

offensive line gaps
Secondly, what’s the #1 rule in offense? Protect the QB. It doesn’t matter if it’s a run play because someone, like a Calais Campbell, could get to the QB in a shotgun position before he can hand it off to the RB. Not just him, the whole line could blitz and the RB is getting slammed, too.

In a typical one back set (see diagram below), the offense will want to give the same look, so defenses don’t know if it’s a run or pass play. The defense is also trying to disguise where they’re sending pressure from. They don’t want to tip their hand who has what assignment. QB’s will often try to assess this by letting the play clock run down hoping the LB or safety will move or give a “tell” so he knows what the protection should be.

Let’s say the SS (Strong Safety) is creeping up. The QB (or OL) determines that it’s actually the S who’s Mike. This lets the OL know what gap to fill, also the TE and RB because that’s where the any blitz/rush may come from. As was covered in two separate pieces on one vs two gaps and over/under, it’s all about disguises.

The Center, RG and RT will aim right and the C may line up across from the DT instead of the NT, or shade him. Of course, he could stay put and the tandem of G/T slides instead. The bottom line is the OL now knows who could be coming through and which guys they need to block.

defensive line techniques
will is mike
In the hypothetical play above, there really isn’t a weak side because the field is balanced. The defense decides to play their Will on the TE side because they think the Y is a dummy, or he’s there to help block the Edge. The QB also decides the W is Mike because pre-snap he sees the SS creeping up, plus the LCB is playing press.

While CBs don’t often sack the QB, they can’t be discounted playing at the line of scrimmage, so he determines between the safety and the CB, he needs more protection from that side. Hence, the Will is Mike.

Once he’s identified, the QB yells out his number (LBs #’s are in the 50’s), so you’ll hear, 56 is Mike, 56 Mike. The OL changes its gap coverage so the C is lined up across from the Mike, not the NT making it 5v5. Or not.

That’s the funny thing about football. The Center could stay put, but keep his eyes on the Mike as needed while the G and T move over. He then moves where he’s needed. He could also call one protection, realize after the snap, he was wrong and swap. What’s key is the OL knowing where to look and who to block.

The story doesn’t end there though because defenses could have a LB act as if he’s Mike, but once the ball is snapped, they change responsibilities.

With rookies or first time starters, teams like to confuse the QB by doing the above. He’s only seen a “look” from this year or the last on film, so they will show him one they haven’t used. If there’s an OL or RB who hasn’t been around for a while, they won’t be able to tell him.

Yes, O-linemen can and do change plays based on protection, provided the coach has given them that responsibility. The Jags have a few veterans and with a former O-linemen as a HC, he no doubt allows it.

Based on his pre-snap read, and the play that’s been called, he or the OL, could yell kill, kill and the play is changed to Plan B. Every snap has a back-up play if this occurs. Most often it goes to a run if there’s a back. However, some QBs will yell kill, but they didn’t really. This can get a defense to relax or prepare for a run and the QB passes.

Football is ALL about disguises, stunts, fake-outs

 In summary, a good QB and his trusty wingmen, will diagnose the protection correctly by identifying Mike and he lives to see another day.


Chest Pain is not a Straight Forward Diagnosis: Dr Sullivan Explains

In light of the tragic passing of long time NFL and NCAA coach Tony Sparano on Sunday July 22nd, a quick review of chest pain seemed to be timely and appropriate.

The first thing that needs to be said is chest pain is not a medical diagnosis.  Chest pain is a symptom.  It means it is treated by medical personnel like elevated blood pressure or an elevated temperature, a clue as to what maybe going on with a patient.

When people hear chest pain, most people assume this means heart attack, but in an emergency department/hospital setting heart attack or acute myocardial infarction as it is known in the medical community is only 1 of a whole list of conditions that include some type of chest pain as a symptom.

CHEST PAIN – Possible Diagnoses 

  • Acute Cardiac Syndrome – Acute Myocardial Infarction
  • Chest Wall Pain – musculoskeletal pain that is reproducible when chest is palpated
  • GERD – Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (heartburn)
  • Panic Disorder or Acute Anxiety Attack
  • Pneumonia or Bronchitis
  • Pericarditis – this is diagnosed based on the presence of  a triad of symptoms and is not common
  • Pulmonary Embolism – this is related to a blood clot in the lungs
  • Heart Failure – generally occurs in patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction

A lot of people posted on various social media sites that Coach Sparano was admitted for chest pain and discharged the next day without proper diagnosis and died 2 days later so therefore the doctors didn’t do their job properly.

This is not an accurate assessment and most likely, he was discharged because the initial workup was found to be negative and based on current guidelines under which medical professionals are trained, the risk of remaining in the hospital was greater than the risk of an acute life threatening event occuring in the 24-72 hours after discharge.

Several algorithms are used, but basically if the initial workup is negative, patients are discharged home with follow up for further testing as outpatients scheduled in the week following discharge.  This testing can include advanced cardiac testing and if deemed necessary, based on the results of these tests, more invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization and angioplasty.

Chest pain is a complex symptom. The loss of Coach Sparano was a shock to everyone, but if you experience chest pain which is associated with heavy sweating and/or worse with exertion, are over the age of 40, have a family history of cardiac disease, have other conditions like obesity, diabetes, & hypertension, you are a current or former smoker or have had a previous myocardial infarction you should go to the closest emergency room, your family doctor or call 911 so you can be evaluated ASAP.

Coach did exactly what he was supposed to but sometimes bad things happen to good people despite the best efforts to the contrary.

Finally, my heartfelt condolences go out to the Sparano family and #Vikings everywhere.  Rest in Peace Coach Sparano, You will have a seat on the 50 yard line in heaven for eternity.